Czech Pronouns: the complete guide

Pronouns are something that we use all the time when we speak or write. It would be nearly impossible to go without pronouns for more than a couple of words or sentences.

This is the case for the Czech language, too. Czech has just as many pronouns as English does, if not more. Read this guide to learn all about some of the most frequently used Czech pronouns.

Czech personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are what most people immediately think of when they hear the word “pronouns”. It's those little words that refer to a particular grammatical person – such as “I”, “you”, “they” etc.

Here is a list of Czech personal pronouns:

Table: Czech personal pronouns (singular)
czech pronoun translation
ty you
on he
ona she
ono it
Table: Czech personal pronouns (plural)
czech pronoun translation
my we
vy you
oni they (masculine)
ony they (feminine)
ona they (neuter)

Tip: If speaking about a group of people that consists of men and women, use the pronoun “oni”, not “ony”.

Czech possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns are used when referring to some manner of ownership or possession. For example: «To je moje kolo.» (“That is my bike.”)

Here are Czech possessive pronouns:

Table: Czech possessive pronouns (singular)
czech pronoun translation
můj my, mine (masculine)
moje my, mine (feminine and neuter)
tvůj your, yours (masculine)
tvoje your, yours (feminine and neuter)
jeho his
její her, hers
jeho its
Table: Czech possessive pronouns (plural)
czech pronoun translation
náš our, ours (masculine)
naše our, ours (feminine and neuter)
váš your, yours (masculine)
vaše your, yours (feminine and neuter)
jejich their, theirs

In the case of “my”, “your”, and “our”, the gender of each pronoun is determined by the following word, not by the gender of the speaker. For example: «Kde je moje bunda?» (“Where is my jacket?”)

Czech reflexive pronouns

In English, there are many reflexive pronouns, all ending in "-self", such as “myself” or “ourselves”.

Czech only has two reflexive pronouns – both are gender- and speaker-neutral. They are used with certain reflexive verbs, such as «učesat se» (to brush one's hair) or «pustit si» (to put on something for oneself – such as music or TV).

Table: Czech reflexive pronouns
czech pronoun translation
si oneself (dative)
se oneself (accusative)

In Czech, the choice of reflexive pronoun depends on the grammatical case – “si” is used in the dative, while “se” is used in the accusative.

Czech relative and interrogative pronouns

Relative and interrogative pronouns are used as marks of relative clauses and questions. In Czech, these two categories overlap almost exactly. The only pronoun that doesn't fit both categories is “jenž”, which is a relative pronoun only and cannot be used as a question word.

“Jenž” is a pronoun that is rarely used in spoken form, but you may come across it in written form – especially in formal letters and other texts. Most native Czech speakers find the declension of “jenž” particularly difficult, as it is used rarely in day-to-day life and therefore doesn't come naturally to most people.

Here is a list of Czech relative and interrogative pronouns:

Table: Czech relative and interrogative pronouns
czech pronoun translation
kdo who
co what
který which, who (masculine singular)
která which, who (feminine singular)
které which, who (neuter singular)
kteří which, who (masculine animate plural)
které which, who (masculine inanimate and feminine plural)
která which, who (neuter plural)
jaký what, what type, what kind (masculine singular)
jaká what, what type, what kind (feminine singular)
jaké what, what type, what kind (neuter singular)
jací what, what type, what kind (masculine animate plural)
jaké what, what type, what kind (masculine inanimate and feminine plural)
jaká what, what type, what kind (neuter plural)
čí whose
jenž which, who (masculine singular)
jež which, who (feminine and neuter singular)
již which, who (masculine animate plural)
jež which, who (masculine inanimate, feminine, and neuter plural)

Czech demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns are words that one uses to distinguish people and items from one another. They are words such as “this” or “that”.

Here is a list of Czech demonstrative pronouns:

Table: Czech demonstrative pronouns (singular)
czech pronoun translation
ten the, that (masculine)
ta the, that (feminine)
to the, that (neuter)
tento this (masculine and neuter)
tenta this (feminine)
Table: Czech demonstrative pronouns (plural)
czech pronoun translation
ti the, those (masculine animate)
ty the, those (masculine inanimate and feminine)
ta the, those (neuter)
tito these (masculine animate)
tyto these (masculine inanimate and feminine)
tato these (neuter)

Indefinite pronouns in Czech

As the name suggests, indefinite pronouns don't refer to anything or anyone specific. They are words such as “someone” or “anywhere”.

Here is a list of some of the most common indefinite pronouns in Czech:

Table: Czech indefinite pronouns
czech pronoun translation
někdo somebody, someone
něco something
kdokoli anybody, anyone
cokoli anything
leckdo, ledakdo, kdekdo many people, quite a few people
lecco, ledaco, kdeco all sorts of things, quite a few things
někde somewhere
kdekoli anywhere
všude everywhere
nějak somehow
jakkoliv anyhow
každý each, each one (masculine singular)
každá each, each one (feminine singular)
každé each, each one (neuter singular)
nějaký some, one, a(n) (masculine singular)
nějaká some, one, a(n) (feminine singular)
nějaké some, one, a(n) (neuter singular)
nějací some (masculine animate plural)
nějaké some (masculine inanimate and feminine plural)
nějaká some (neuter plural)
něčí belonging to someone or something

Negative pronouns in Czech

Negative pronouns are similar to indefinite pronouns. Instead of referring to a more general group of things or people, negative pronouns are used to suggest that there is a lack of something or someone. These are words such as “nothing” or “none”.

Here is a list of Czech negative pronouns:

Table: Czech negative pronouns
czech pronoun translation
nikdo no one
nic nothing
nikde nowhere
nijak in no way
žádný no, none (masculine singular)
žádná no, none (feminine singular)
žádné no, none (neuter singular)
žádní no (masculine animate plural)
žádné no (masculine inanimate and feminine plural)
žádná no (neuter plural)
ničí belonging to no one

Gender-neutral pronouns in Czech

Czech is a very gendered language. All nouns have genders, and even verb endings are dictated based on who is performing the activity of the verb.

This is why remaining gender-neutral in Czech can often be challenging. Still, nonbinary people exist in the Czech Republic as much as they do anywhere else.

Recently, there has been a lot of discussion about gender-neutral pronouns in Czech. While there isn't one universal way to address someone in a more gender-neutral way, there are still a couple of options:

The Czech language still has a long way to go to establish a more universal gender-neutral way of speaking about people. If you meet someone nonbinary from the Czech Republic, ask them which pronouns they use for themselves instead of assuming. Each person might prefer something completely different, and this is the best way to avoid any mistakes.


These were some of the most commonly used Czech pronouns. There are, of course, many more. However, this guide covered those pronouns that you might see most frequently.

Remember to always make sure you're using the right gender of each pronoun, and don't forget that Czechs decline their pronouns – it wouldn't do to only use the nominative form in every sentence.

If you'd like to learn more about the Czech language, check out our guides to Czech Terms of Endearment and Affection and Czech Compliments .